Forum Title: common plumbing terms
Plumbing Forums would like to thank Frodo and Zanne for this very helpful list!http://www.horizonservicesinc.com/re...mbing-glossaryhttp://www.plumbingmart.com/plumbing-glossary-a.htmlhttp://www.plumbinghelp.ca/terms/PROPER PLUMBING TERMINOLOGYABS: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. A black plastic pipe used in plumbing for drains and vents.Absorption Field: A leaching or seeping drain field engineered to receive septic tank effluent.Adjustable Hot Limit Stop: Restricts hot water output in single control faucets and showers to protect against scalding by limiting the swing to the hot side.Aerator: A screen-like insert screwed onto a faucet outlet. It mixes air with the flowing water to reduce splashing.Air Admittance Valve: (AAV) Studor vent. Cheater valve. A plumbing device that replaces a traditional vent to allow air to enter the pipe and equalize pressure, preserving the seal of water in the fixture trap.Air Break: (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal.Air Gap: (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste pipe is discharging.Air Gap: (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.Anode Rod: A sacrificial rod installed in a water heater, composed of one or more metals that protects the tank from corrosion, helping to extend the life of the tank.Auger (or Closet Auger): A bendable rod with curved end used by plumbers to remove clogs from a toiletΓÇÖs trap.Back Flow: When water traveling from one system backs into any part of the main distribution system, usually by siphoning.Back Flow Preventer: A device to prevent back flow, especially into a potable water supply. Required for sprinkler systems, handheld showers, pullout faucet spouts, and kitchen sprayers.Back Pressure: Pressure that resists the flow of fluid in a piping system.Back-siphonage: negative pressure in the piping system which results in backflow. Commonly prevented with a vacuum breaker or air gap.Backup: Overflow of a plumbing fixture due to drain stoppage.Baffle: An object placed in an appliance to change the direction of, or slow down the flow of air, gases or water.Balancing Valve: A water heater valve that controls water flow and balances heat distribution to different locations.Ball Check Valve: A valve that uses a ball to seal against a seat to stop flow in one direction.Ball Joint: A spherical assembly in shower heads that allows the head to pivot and rotate.Ballcock: A valve in the tank of a gravity-operated toilet that controls refilling of the tank. It is connected to a float via a metal arm. After flushing, the toilet refills until the float rises high enough to shut off the valve.Bathroom Group: Term to describe the common bathroom. One toilet, one sink, one bathtub/shower.Bidet: A plumbing fixture similar in appearance to a toilet bowl used for personal hygiene. It is floor mounted, usually next to a toilet, and consists of a washing basin, faucet and sprayer.Blackwater: Waste water from a toilet.Bleed: To drain a pipe of excess air by opening a valve at the end of the pipe.Blow Torch: A torch used by plumbers to solder pipes, activated by pressurized fuel and air to generate its flame.Blowbag: A drain-cleaning device consisting of a rubber bladder with a hose fitting on one end and a nozzle on the other. The device attaches to a water hose and is inserted into a clogged drainpipe. As water is introduced, it expands to grip the pipe, and releases pulsating bursts of water through the nozzle, forcing water through the pipe to clear the obstruction. Also known as a blowfish.Blowdown: Partial venting or draining, under pressure, of the water side of a boiler to reduce or remove unwanted contaminants. Also the pressure drops after releasing a pressure-relief valve.Boiler: A sealed tank where water is turned to steam for heating or power.Boiler Feed: A check valve controlling inlet water flow to a boiler.Bonnet: The top portion of a compression valve assembly, it holds the valve in place as it is tightened against the valve seat at the other end of the assembly.Brackish Water: Water containing bacteria between 1,000 and 15,000 ppm of dissolved solids.Branch Vent: A vent pipe connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.Brass: Slang for faucets and fittings regardless of materials used.Burst Pressure: The internal pressure that will cause a piece of tubing to fail.Branch Drain: Plumbing fixture drain that leads to the main drain line.Bushing: A fitting thatΓÇÖs threaded inside and outside that joins pipes of different sizes.Check valve: A device that allow flow in only one direction.Circuit Vent: A vent that connects to a horizontal drainage branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or trapped fixtures connected into a battery.CPVC: Stands for chlorinated polyvinyl chloride. A black plastic pipe that can handle high temperatures. Mostly used in water supply systems.Cleanout Plug: A plug in a trap or drain pipe that provides access for the purpose of clearing an obstruction.Closet Bend: A curved waste pipe fitting under a toilet that connects the closet flange to the drain.Closet Flange: A ring that anchors the toilet to the floor and connects it to the closet bend. Also known as a Floor Flange.Collar: A galvanized sheet metal restricting device used in conjunction with plastic pipe. Its function is to direct and control the intumescent action of the firestopping material.Common Vent: An individual vent is permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented shall be located on the same floor levelCompression Fitting: A kind of tubing or pipe connection where a nut and a sleeve or ferrule is placed over a copper or plastic tube and is compressed tightly around the tube as the nut is tightened forming a positive grip and seal without soldering.Coupling: A short fitting used to join two pieces of pipe.Cowl: A short fitting used to join two pieces of pipe.Crown Vent: a vent for a plumbing fixture in which the vent pipe is connected at the top of the curve in the pipe that forms the trap or within 2 pipe diameters of the trap.Dam: A barrier in the trapway of a toilet that controls the water level in the toilet bowl.Diaphragm: A flexible membrane in a valve that deflects down onto a rigid area of the valve body to regulate water flow from the supply lines. This eliminates the possibility of debris build-up within the valve.Die: Cutting device used to thread pipe. A set of these attach to dieheads, and mounted on a threader.Dielectric: A nonconductor of direct electric current.Diffuser: A device used to reduce the velocity and increasing the static pressure of a fluid passing through a system.Dip Tube: A tube inside the water heater that sends cold water to the bottom of the tank.Diverter: A faucet valve that redirects water from the tub faucet to the shower head.Dope: A lubricant used by plumbers on pipe threads.Drain-Waste-Vent System: (DWV) A pipe system that drains wastewater from the bathroom and vents the drain system.Effluent: Septic system liquid wasteElbow: A curved fitting, usually 90┬░ or 45┬░, used to change the direction of a pipe run. Also called an ΓÇ£ell.ΓÇ¥Escutcheon: A decorative metal flange or plate that covers and hides the supply line hole in the fixture or wall.Fitting: Any part that joins together two sections of pipe. Comes in many shapes, sizes & connection styles. Examples: elbows, couplings, bends, wyes, etc.Fixture: Anything that accepts or discharges water or wastewater: faucets, sinks, toilets, tubs.Flange: The rim or edge at end of a pipe shaft that aids in connecting it to another pipe or anchoring it to a surface.Flapper: A rubber flap with ball-like shape in the bottom of a toilet lifts to allow flushing and seals off the tank for refilling. Allows water to flow from the tank into the bowl.Flex Coupling: A rubber fitting that uses steel band clamps to attach to the pipe ends. Mostly used to join sections of DWV pipe, but also connects PVC to clay or cast iron pipe.Flow Control Valve: Device designed to reduce water flow to a plumbing fixture. Often used to improve efficiency and reduce operating costs.Flow Rate: Measurement of water flow through a plumbing system in gallons per minutes (GPM) or gallons per hour (GPH).Flood-Level Rim: The edge of a plumbing fixture or receptacle over which water would flow if it were full.Float Ball: A floating device connected to the ballcock inside the toilet tank to activate or shut off the ballcock.Flux: A jelly-like substance used in soldering copper pipes and fittings. Applied before soldering to aid bonding and prevent oxidation.Galvanizing: The process of applying a coating of zinc to the finished product to provide corrosion protection. The coating can be applied by hot dipping or electrolytic deposition.FUBAR: Acronym for F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition"Gasket: Flat device usually made of fiber or rubber used to provide a watertight seal between metal joints.Gate: A device that controls the flow in a conduit, pipe, or tunnel.Gate Diverter: The pop-up lever on a tub faucet that activates the diverter valve.Gauge: The thickness of stainless steel and is commonly used in reference to quality grades on certain types of lavatories and sinks. 10 and 20-gauge stainless steel sinks go through a number of polishing and buffing operations to ensure a beautiful finish.GPF: Stands for Gallons Per Flush. The rate of water flow by which toilets and flush valves are measured and regulated. Current law requires maximum of 1.6 GPF. Older styles were usually 3.5 GPF.Gravity Operated Toilet: A toilet which relies on the natural downward pressure of water in a toilet tank to flush the toilet effectively.Grease Trap: A device that captures grease entering a system before it reaches the sewer lines. Usually used in commercial applications such as restaurants or cafeterias.Greywater: aka sullage. All wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets.Hard Water: Natural water containing impurities in various proportions. Traditional hardness is a measure of calcium, minerals or dissolved solids in a solution, measured in parts per million. Hard water generally ranges from 100 to 250 ppm.Hanger: A device used to support pipes.Hose Bibb: Sillcock. An outdoor faucet, also used to supply washing machines.ID: Stands for ΓÇ£inside diameter.ΓÇ¥ Measures the inside width of a pipe.Impeller: A rotating wheel with vanes found inside a centrifugal pump. As it spins at high speed it draws fluids in and thrusts them under pressure to the discharge outlet.Individual Vent: Individual vent permitted. Each trap and trapped fixture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The individual vent shall connect to the fixture drain of the trap or trapped fixture being vented.Interceptor: A device for separating grease and oil from drainage systems.kPa: A metric unit for pressure. 100 kPa = one atmosphere.Lavatory: Bathroom or washroom sink.L Tubing: An industry standard for copper tubing defined by the tube wall thickness and identified by a ΓÇ£blueΓÇ¥ strip. Type ΓÇ£LΓÇ¥ copper tube wall is approximately 50 percent greater thickness than type ΓÇ£MΓÇ¥.Leach Lines: Pipes that carry effluent from the septic system out to the leach field, a porous soil area where treated waste is emptied.Low Consumption Toilet: A class of toilet designed to flush using 1.6 gallons of water or less. Also known as ΓÇ£water-savingΓÇ¥ toilets.M Tubing: An industry standard for copper tubing defined by the tube wall thickness. Identified by a ΓÇ£redΓÇ¥ stripe.Maceration: the use of a machine that reduces solids to small pieces in order to deal with rags and other solid waste. Also, macerating toilets, which use a grinding or blending mechanism to reduce human waste to a slurry, which can then be moved by pumping.Main: The primary artery of the supply or drain system to which all the branches connect. Referred to as the Main Vent in the vent system.Manifold: A fitting that connects a number of branches to the main; serves as a distribution point.MaP score: Maximum Performance score. Represents the number of grams of solid waste (soybean paste and toilet paper) that a particular toilet can flush and remove completely from the fixture in a single flush. Mapp Gas: A colorless, flammable gas made by combining liquefied petroleum gas with Methylacetylene-Propadiene. It is a stable, non-toxic fuel used in brazing and soldering.MCL: Maximum Contaminant Level ΓÇô The maximum level of a contaminant allowed in water by federal law.Metal Fatigue: A breakage of the metal caused by the bending and flexing or the expansion and contraction of a metal part beyond its endurance limit.Nipple: A short piece of pipe installed between couplings or other fittings.No-Hub Connector: A connector for no-hub iron pipe consisting of a rubber sleeve and a stainless steel band secured by hose clamps. A variation, a neoprene sleeve with two adjustable steel bands, is used for connecting dissimilar materials, as when connecting new plastic pipe to an existing cast-iron drainpipe.Non-ferrous: Not containing iron.Oakum: Loosely woven hemp rope that has been treated with oil or other waterproofing agent; it is used to caulk joints in a bell and spigot pipe and fittings.Offset: The term used to describe a pipe that connects two parallel pipes. Some offsets in a drainage system may require an offset relief vent.Overflow Hood: On a bath drain, the decorative hood concealing the overflow.Overflow Tube: The vertical tube inside a toilet tank that directs water into the bowl in case the ballcock malfunctions and prevents potential water damage caused by a tank overflow. A constant running condition alerts the user to an overflow problem. On most toilets, the overflow tube also has a refill tube flowing into it, which directs water from the ballcock through the overflow tube to the bowl, after a siphon break.O-Ring: A rubber washer that is round instead of flat. Used in valve stems to create a watertight seal.OD: Stands for ΓÇ£outside diameter.ΓÇ¥ Measures the outside width of a pipe.PB: Stands for polybutylene. A bendable plastic tubing most often used to supply water to bathroom fixtures.PE: Stands for polyethylene. A flexible plastic supply line.Percolation: Part of the water cycle that occurs after precipitation and before storage during which water filters down through aerated soil due to gravity. After percolation, water is stored in groundwater reservoirs until it reaches a point where sunlight warms it and the water evaporates.Percolation Rate: Environmental Engineering Dictionary. The rate, usually expressed as a velocity, at which water moves through saturated granular material.Perforated Pipe: Pipe designed to discharge water through small, multiple, closely spaced orifices or nozzles, places in a segment of its circumference for irrigation purposes.PEX: Stands for cross-linked polyethylene. A flexible plastic supply line that is stronger than PE. In bathrooms, it is used for water supply lines.Pickling: Immersing pipe into acid bath for removal of scale, oil, dirt, etc.Piezo Switch: The electronic switch the bather uses to control the whirlpool and optional heater. This switch, based upon the piezo-electric effect, generates a voltage when pressure is applied to it.PlumberΓÇÖs Putty: A dough-like putty that seals joints between fixture surfaces and metal pieces, such as the drain.Plumbing Snake: A thin, flexible length of spiral-wound metal, which is inserted into a drain and rotated to clear anything that is clogged in the pipes.Plunger: A rubber suction cup approx 6ΓÇ│ in diameter attached to a wooden dowel handle used to free drain clogs. Also known as a ΓÇ£plumberΓÇÖs helperΓÇ¥.Pneumatic: Pertains to devices using compressed air.Pop-Up Drain: Remote control drain assembly. Also known as a ΓÇ£trip lever drainΓÇ¥ for tubs.Positive Air Pressure Attenuator (PAPA): Used in conjunction with AAVs. system developed to resolve the problems of positive pressures (transients / back-pressure) within the drainage systems of multi-story and high rise developments.Potable: Water that is suitable for consumption.Pressure Balance Valve: A shower valve that monitors fluctuations in pressure to maintain balance between hot and cold water so that temperature remains constant.Pressure Head: Pressure in a plumbing system. The unit of measure which is the vertical force exerted by water at a depth of one foot.PVC: Stands for polyvinyl-chloride. A rigid white plastic pipe used for bathroom drain, waste and vent pipes.Reducer: A fitting that allows pipes of different sizes to be joined together.Relief Valve: A valve that opens to relieve excess temperature and/or pressure in the system.Relief Vent: Where the horizontal branch is located more than four branch intervals from the top of the stack, the horizontal branch shall be provided with a relief vent that shall connect to a vent stack or stack vent, or extend outdoors to the open air. Return: A plumbing fitting with a 180-degree bend.Re-Vent: A re-vent or revent pipe in a plumbing drain-waste-vent or DWV system is an auxiliary vent that is attached to the drain pipe close to an individual plumbing fixture. The re-vent or revent pipe is routed upwards above the fixture and then horizontally over to a tee that attaches it to the main stack vent pipe. At the fixture the revent pipe can connect immediately behind the plumbing fixture or it may be connected close to the fixture along a horizontal drain line that serves that fixture.Riser: A supply line pipe that rises from one story to the next; also the short vertical pipes that bring water from the branch to the fixture.Saddle Tee: Fitting that taps into the side of a pipe, used to make quick connection to an existing line.Saddle Valve: A valve mounted on a pipe run by a clamping device, or saddle tee to provide a water supply for a low-demand device.Sanitary Tee: San-T. Sani-Tee. A tee used as a fitting for a soil pipe; designed with a slight curve in the 90┬░ transition so as to channel flow from a branch line toward the direction of the main flow.Scald Guard: A valve designed to prevent extreme water temperature changes through pressure balance technology. When there is a drop in hot or cold water pressure, the scald-guard valve shifts back and forth behind the shower handle to compensate for the sudden change. This valve maintains a constant water temperature to help give you and your family a safe and enjoyable bathing experience.Scale: A thin coating or layer, usually calcium on the bottom of a tank or interior parts that may prevent heat transfer.Schedule: Numbers assigned to different wall thicknesses of pipe (e.g. sch 40).Sediment: The substance that settles on the bottom of a water tank. Also known as lime.Septic D-Box: Septic Distribution Box. A container used to receive septic system effluent from a septic tank and to re-distribute the effluent into a network of attached drain-field or soakaway bed absorption trenches & pipes.Septic Tank: A tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution. Septic tanks are used when a sewer line is not available to carry them to a treatment plant.Service Partner Plan (SPP): The Horizon Services Service Partner Plan (SPP) is a great way to be sure that in case of an emergency, you are guaranteed the priority service you deserve as a valued customer. Benefits, include, priority service for plumbing, heating and air conditioning calls (routine or emergency), a 15% discount on all repairs, and no additional charge for overtime or emergency calls!Shattaf (aka Diaper Sprayer): . Handheld bidet sprayer mounted near a toilet and used to wash excrement from the body or soiled diapers.Shower Arm: Shower trim component that delivers water to the showerhead. Usually 1/2" NPT. The shower arm connects showerhead and water supply line behind a finished wall of the shower enclosure.Shutoff Valve: Valves installed under sinks and toilets used to shut off water supply in the event of a malfunction or repair. Also called an Angle Stop, Straight Stop or Supply Stop.Siphoning: The suction or pulling effect that takes place in the trapway of a toilet as it is filled with outgoing water and waste.Sleeve: A pipe which is passed through a wall for the purpose of inserting another pipe through it.SNAFU: Acronym for Situation Normal All F***ed UpSoft Water: Water that has been treated so that it has low mineral content.Solder: A metal alloy that is melted to create a fused joint between metal pieces. Also the act of melting solder into the joint.Soil Pipe: A pipe that carries waste from toilets.Stack Vent (vent stack): A vent pipe that extends from the top of a soil-or-waste stack and connects to vent header or terminates outside.Standpipe: a vertical pipe extending from a water supply, especially one connecting a temporary tap to the main.S-Trap: Trap design which routes drainage vertically down through the floor to connect with the drainage waste vent (DWV).Street Ell: A 90┬░ elbow joint with a hub on one end and male threads on the other. Used to make an angled connection between pipe or tubing and a fitting with a hub.Stub-Out: Short lengths of pipe installed during rough-in to which fixtures and drains will eventually be installed.Sump: A pit or pool for draining, collecting, or storing water. A chamber which provides water to the pump. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be emptied by mechanical means.Sump Pump: An automatic water pump powered by an electric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sewage, from a sump, pit or low point.Sump Vent: A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or similar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. Sweep: A pipe bend fitting used in drains to permit smooth passage of waste.T&P Valve: Temperature and pressure valve. A valve that opens to release excess pressure and temperature in a system.Tailpiece: The section of pipe that runs between a fixture outlet and the trap.Tee: A plumbing fitting in the shape of the letter ΓÇ£T,ΓÇ¥ used to connect three sections of pipe.Tee Fitting: A fitting that allows another pipe to be joined at a 90-degree angle.Teflon Tape: White tape made of fluorocarbon polymer. It has non-stick properties and is wrapped around pipe threads in a joint to create a tight seal.Trap: A curved section of drain that traps a small portion of water to prevent sewer gases from escaping into the bathroom. ΓÇ£PΓÇ¥ traps and ΓÇ£SΓÇ¥ traps are the types of traps most commonly found in bathrooms.Trap Arm: the pipe between the trap weir and the vent pipe.Trap Weir: The point on a trap where water will begin to flow down the trap arm.Trap Seal: The water in a trap or toilet that prevents sewer gases from escaping back through the drain.Trip Lever: Flush handle and actuating arm on a toilet tank. Also the lever that opens and closes the drain on the bathtub waste and overflow.Turbidity: Water cloudiness caused by suspended particles.Union: A three piece fitting that joins two sections of pipe, but allows them to be disconnected without cutting the pipe.Urinal: A plumbing fixture which receives only liquid body waste and conveys the waste through a trap seal into a gravity drainage system.Vacuum Breaker: An anti-siphon device that prevents the back flow of contaminated water into the water supply system in the event of a negative pressure condition.Valve: A device that regulates the flow of water.Valve Seat: The immovable portion of a valve. Water flow is stopped when the movable portion of the valve comes in contact with the valve seat.Vanity: Bathroom cabinet with a wash basin set in the top.Vent: A vertical or sloping portion of drain pipe that allows sewer gasses to escape from the house into the outdoor air and lets air into the drain system to keep air pressure balanced and prevent water in traps from being siphoned off.Water Hammer Arrestor: A device installed near a fixture to absorb the hydraulic shock that happens when a fixtureΓÇÖs supply is suddenly shut off, causing water hammer, a loud banging noise in the pipes.Wet Vent: A pipe that both drains wastewater and vents air into the drains. Connects two or more fixtures.Wax Ring: A seal located between floor flange and toilet to prevent leakage and fumes.Weeping Tile: An underground pipe designed to convey ground water away from a structure. Also known as Subsoil drainage pipe.Wye Fitting: A drain fitting that allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45-degree angle.Yoke Vent: A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack to prevent pressure changes in the stacks.
Post By: JESSE ROSS (Green Bay, WI), 12/29/2016
I'd like to add Bibcock: a faucet with a bent nozzle fixed at the end of a pipe. I came across the term and went to look for it here and realized it wasn't in the list.